Sicilian people; A cosmopolitan society
In the early eleventh century, a band of Norman adventurers rode from Normandy, in northern France, to southern Italy. Led by Roger d’Hauteville and his brother, Robert Guiscard, they intended to wrest the region from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims. By 1072, only six years after their compatriot, William, had conquered England at the Battle of Hastings, Roger became Count. Later, he was Roger I, King of Sicily.
Sicilian people have the oldest royal residence in Europe
During his 30 year reign, Roger I enlarged the existing Arab fortress at the Sicilian capital, Palermo. This was itself built on the ruins of an earlier Roman stronghold from the first Punic War. Now known as the Palazzo dei Normanni, it’s the oldest royal residence in Europe. The Palazzo’s original chapel, built and consecrated in the last years of the eleventh century, became the crypt of a new chapel built by Roger’s successor, King Roger II, in 1132. Known as the Cappella Palatina, it’s one of the highlights of any visit to Palermo today. So too is La Martorana, built by Roger II’s Greek admiral and principal minister, George of Antioch. Monreale Cathedral, built by Roger’s grandson and successor, William II, is another famous cathedral founded by these Norman kings.
All three feature the exotic hybrid of artistic influences developed in twelfth century Sicily, and all three are visited on Odyssey’s small group tour of Malta, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Yet while the design and decoration of the Cappella Palatina, La Martorana, and Monreale Cathedral reflect the diversity of twelfth century Sicily, they also reveal the kings’ desire to rival the Byzantine emperors, and to maintain strong French connections.
Sicilian power and glory in glittering mosaic
Roger II was crowned King of Sicily by the ‘Antipope’, Anacletus II, in return for support during the papal schism. Yet he was not born to ‘the purple’. He ruled over a cosmopolitan society formed of Normans, Greeks, Italians, Jews and Arabs – all of whom contributed greatly to the culture of his court. He proved to be an enlightened ruler. Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, his court boasted some of the finest minds of the age. Under his leadership, Sicily became a leading maritime power in the Mediterranean, and one of the best-governed states in Europe. Roger himself was depicted as a Latin king, in imperial Byzantine robes, and as an Islamic sultan. The cultural climate of his court is seen in the variety of artistic styles used in the decoration of his palace chapel, the Cappella Palatina.
The Cappella Palatina, palace chapel.
Originally isolated from the larger Palazzo complex, the Cappella Palatina was accessed via a narthex (lobby area). This lead into a Norman style wooden roofed basilica hall at the western end. A fully vaulted domed church with three apses was at the eastern end. It was completed with a Byzantine cupola. Pointed arches are set on ten Sicilian marble columns, and the ceiling is Islamic in style. The decoration of the interiors combined the talents of artists working in a riotous fusion of Byzantine, Islamic, Latin, Jewish, Lombard and French artistic traditions.
Learn about the exquisite mosaics: Cappella’s dome
The richly coloured mosaics within the Cappella Palatina are the most celebrated of its features. Created by Greek artists, they follow Middle Byzantine themes closely in the dome and drum. Here, Christ Pantocrator (Christ shown as ruler or sustainer of the world) is the main image. This iconography is commonly found in Orthodox Christian churches. It depicts Christ holding up his right hand in blessing (or teaching), while the left holds a copy of the Gospels. In the Cappella’s dome, the scene is set against a glittering gold background, enclosed in a ring with a Greek quotation from Isaiah. A surrounding band features four archangels and four angels, while the spandrels, niches and squinches of the dome are decorated with prophets and evangelists, all rendered in exquisite mosaic.
Depictions of Christ in the Chapel
Although the area below the dome follows the Byzantine convention by depicting scenes from the life of Christ, the rest of the Capella’s decoration differs significantly. Rather than the usual depiction of the Passion cycle (events from the last days of Christ’s life), honoured positions are instead given to the Annunciation, Presentation in the Temple, the Flight into Egypt and the Entry into Jerusalem. In the latter two, Christ is depicted in the role of a triumphant ruler, suggesting the decoration of the palace chapel was deliberately chosen to reflect Roger II’s power and glory.
The patron saint of France is on display
The king’s French connections are also on vivid display in the Cappella. On either side of the Entry into Jersualem stand two saints with strong ties to France. They are St Denis, first bishop of Paris, and St Martin, a famous bishop of Tours. Both are traditional patrons of the French king and the army, and at the time the Cappella was decorated, St Denis was the patron saint of both France and Paris. Martyred by decapitation, he picked up his head and walked several miles preaching a sermon on repentance. A carving of the saint, shown holding his head, can also be seen above the left portal of the entry to Notre Dame in Paris, where Odyssey’s small group tour of the Western Mediterranean islands ends.
Sicilian people; Here I am, your King …
The church of Santa Maria dell’Ammiraglio is more commonly called La Martorana. It features mosaics equally spectacular to those in the Cappella Palatina. Perhaps the best known is that of Roger II being crowned King of Sicily by Christ. Its an outstanding example of the art produced during the Norman rule of Sicily. Furthermore, the mosaic makes a strong political statement regarding Roger II’s right to rule. Christ is shown with his head turned towards Roger, his right hand extended to place the crown on the king’s head. Roger, head bowed and hands in a gesture of prayer, looks directly at the viewer. Its as if to say Here I am, your King, anointed by Christ himself. He is dressed in the vestments of a Byzantine emperor. This includes a loros, the long ceremonial stole of the Byzantine emperors. This embroidered and jewelled cloth is draped over the shoulders.
Sicily & French connections
Despite the emulation of the powerful Byzantine emperors, Roger II’s foreign policy was clearly oriented towards strengthening ties with France. In the 1140s, when La Martorana was being decorated, Louis VII was planning the Second Crusade to the Holy Lands. Roger II sent messengers to Louis. He offered support in the form of ships, provisions and the participation of either himself or his son. (Louis ultimately chose the overland route to the Holy Lands). Roger further aligned himself with the Capetian kings of France, by including the fleur-de-lys motif on his robe. This motif became more frequent during the reign of Louis VII as a French royal heraldic image. Roger’s second and third wives, and the intended wife of his heir, were also either French themselves, or had connections to important French families abroad.
‘Unnatural centaurs, creatures part man and part beast’
Roger II was not the only ruler of the Sicilian people to align himself with the power and glory of the church through the decoration of religious buildings. Monreale Cathedral, founded by his grandson, William II, also features royal images glorifying the king. The first is found above the royal throne, and echoes that of his grandfather in La Martorana. Another glittering mosaic, it also shows Christ crowning William II as the new King of Sicily. In another scene directly opposite, William is shown presenting the completed cathedral to the Virgin Mary. A third royal image at Monreale is a sculptured one. It again shows William II presenting the cathedral to the Virgin Mary. This time, in an echo of the Adoration of the Magi, the Virgin has the Christ child seated on her lap.
The use of a familiar religious scene to depict an important political or social event is typical of Norman Romanesque art, although executed in Byzantine mosaic. However, the placement of the Cathedral’s mosaic scenes in unbroken friezes is not a Byzantine practice. Furthermore, all the inscriptions are in Latin rather than Greek.
The role of art in the churches in Sicily
Sicily’s cultural diversity is further exemplified at Monreale Cathedral by the cathedral’s cloister capitals, which are predominantly Romanesque in style. Yet as well as classical motifs, the sculptors incorporated and transformed other elements. Byzantine, Arabic and northern French designs appeared side by side. Other scenes on the cloister’s capitals feature imagery that St Bernard of Clairvaux, the influential Cistercian monk and mystic, would most definitely have disapproved of. In 1125, St Bernard famously described the decoration of cloister capitals, such as those at Monreale, as a ‘ridiculous monstrosity’. He thought them a spiritual distraction, being full of images unsuited to a monastery. These include typically Romanesque scenes of duels between men, beasts, or both. Unsuitable too were the ‘obscene monkeys, savage lions, unnatural centaurs, creatures part man and part beast, striped tigers, fighting knights, or hunters sounding their horns.’
St Bernard’s opinion was at the heart of the contemporary debate over what exactly the role of art in churches was. Yet this interchange of Western, Islamic and Byzantine artistic elements at the courts of twelfth century Sicily, tempered with local influences, fostered the growth of a style that spread widely throughout the medieval Mediterranean region.
Odyssey small group tours to Sicily and the Western Mediterranean
The architectural and artistic treasures found in Arab-Norman Palermo, the capital of Sicily, are just one of the many highlights of Odyssey’s small group tour to the western Mediterranean. Beginning in Malta, our small group tour heads to Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, and finishes in Paris. Our fully escorted tour offers extraordinary insights into the history and culture of these four unique islands that long held the keys to the Mediterranean itself. To see the full itinerary for our forthcoming tours of Malta, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, click here.
Odyssey Traveller designs tour packages for active, senior travellers. We provide authentic experiences, with a focus on education. We aim to turn tourists into travellers. If you would like to contact us about this, or any other of our small group tours, please call or send an email. We’d love to hear from you!