History of the Baltic States The term “Baltic states”–used to describe the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania–is a geopolitical term, a shorthand to group together these three Northern European sovereign states. But though the …

Explore Uzbekistan

Mizdakhan Cemetery, Nukus, Uzbekistan

Exploring Uzbekistan In a 2018 article, The British newspaper The Telegraph described Uzbekistan as “the most fascinating country you’ve never been to”. Decades of isolation, particularly during Soviet rule, have pushed it down the list …

Turkey: From Anatolia to the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in the West as the Turkish Empire, was a superpower that lasted for 600 years. Parcelled out among the victorious Allied nations …

The Clash of the Mughals and the Marathas The Mughal Empire officially ruled in India from approximately 1526 until 1856.  Unofficially, however, Mughal reign became obsolete much sooner than 1856. It was in the later …

Living at Versailles

Garden of Versaille

The Political and Social Climate at the Palace of Versailles. The Palace of Versailles was a place of total luxury from the time of Louis XIV’s initial plans to the end of the French monarchy …

Festivals of Bhutan Tshechu, or religious festivals are at the very heart of Bhutan’s unique way of life. These sacred festivals take place all year round – in every monastery and temple, even in the …

Icons of the British Villages: Pubs and Cottages The British pub and cottage figure prominently in the image of a (often romanticised) quintessential “British village”. In this article, we will give special attention to these …

Bhutan a journey into the Hidden Kingdom Bhutan, a tiny and remote nation nestled within the Himalayas, has been described as a real-life Shangri-La. It is famed for its Buddhist spirituality, pristine mountain landscape, and …

Bauhaus Movement

Bauhaus design

The Bauhaus School and its 100-Year Legacy   The Bauhaus School was the brainchild of Walter Gropius of Germany, who reimagined art and utility as a single form that combined architecture, fine arts, and crafts …

Istanbul, Imperial City

Blue Mosque, Istanbul

Istanbul, Imperial City For more than a thousand years, Constantinople stood as the capital of the Byzantine Empire, surviving numerous attacks and internal rebellions, until the cannons of the Ottoman Empire breached its walls. Constantinople, …

Constructing Versailles

The golden entrance gates of the Palace of Versailles

Constructing Versailles, the making of a Palace The Château du Versailles is an iconic destination for all of those interested in French history. A stone’s throw away from Paris, Versailles was the official  residence of …

Portuguese in Africa

Colours of West Africa

The Portuguese in Africa The Kingdom of Kongo and the Transatlantic Slave Trade The Kingdom of Kongo was a former kingdom that dominated West Central Africa in the fourteenth century (Heywood, 2009). Located south of …

‘Queen of the Sea’: A History of Lisbon In 1554, the writer Damião de Góis claimed that out of all the European cities, only Lisbon and her rival Seville ‘could rightfully be called Ladies and …

Five Female Explorers

Women explorers

Five Female Explorers and their Adventures There are many female explorers who have been forgotten or are not as widely remembered as their male counterparts–Gertrude Bell, for example, has been overshadowed by her male colleague, …

Who led Rome? There are plenty of lead characters that rose to Roman power throughout its empire.  While some of them are very well known, others are less so.  Some ascended to leadership via lineage …

The London Underground Beneath London is another London, a shadowy counterpart still not mapped in its entirety, but in many ways similar to the London above the ground. According to Peter Ackroyd in London Under (Vintage, 2012), “It …