Madrid Highlights

An Antipodean travel company serving world travellers since 1983

Cibeles Fountain In Downtown Madrid

Madrid Highlights

Madrid, the Spanish capital is situated in the geographical centre of the peninsula, on the Meseta Castellana , the Castilian Plateau, around 700 metres above sea level. With its more than three million inhabitants and another two million in its surrounding Comunidad de Madrid , it is indeed one of the liveliest and most exciting cities in Europe.  Selecting the best of the Madrid highlights to feature is a challenge for any author. Barcelona has la sagrada familia, Bliboa, the guggenheim, easy choices though for Madrid if a fan of soccer then Santiago Bernabeu stadium, could be your choice, for those waith a passion for the arts then off the historic Paseo del prado is the mueseum with collection of European art work to enjoy maybe yours. For Odyssey Travellers your travel director (tour guide) will have their own favourites and Madrid highlights to share with you on this small group sightseeing program for mature and senior travellers.

 

History of Madrid

Madrid has been inhabited since the Stone Age, but it developed as a medina (Arab town) in the 9th century, growing around the alcazar or castle overlooking the Manzanares River. It was mentioned in historical documents as “Majerit” in 932 AD when the Christian forces of Ramiro II of Leon attacked the city. It was eventually captured from the Muslims by Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon in 1083. Many kings spent time in this city, and in 1309, the Cortes, precursor to the Spanish Parliament, was first called in Madrid.

An earthquake damaged the alcazar in 1466, and various kings, notably Charles I and Philip II, rebuilt and extended the palace and its fortifications. By the 17th century, Madrid had grown to a city of 100,000.

When Charles II of Spain died childless in 1700, the leadership vacuum threatened the balance of power in Europe as his closest possible heirs belonged to the Austrian Habsburg dynasty and the French Bourbon families. The War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 and lasted until 1714. Madrid sided with the Bourbon Philip V, who eventually acceded the throne. (Barcelona, on the other hand, sided with the Habsburgs and was subsequently sacked by the new king’s forces.)

Philip V set about in developing his new capital, building under his patronage the Royal Spanish Academy, the National Library, and the Royal Academy of History. He also built the 500-room Royal Palace after the alcazar was destroyed by fire in 1734.

Palacio Real de Madrid, Spain
Illustration of the Royal Palace of Spain in Madrid.

Charles III continued expanding the city, setting up, among others, the Royal Botanic Garden and the Puerta de Alcala, a monumental arch sitting on the city’s easternmost area, the present Plaza de la Independencia. He also commissioned a building, originally meant to be a natural history museum that was to turn into the Prado, a major art gallery, under the reign of Ferdinand VII.

The last king of Spain to live in the Royal Palace was Alfonso XIII, who abdicated the throne in 1931 following a municipal plebiscite that abolished the monarchy. The Spanish Constitution of 1931, calling for the democratic election of Spain’s rulers, was legislated in Madrid. The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, and Madrid, a bastion of the Republican forces, was besieged and bombed by Franco’s Nationalist forces. The Nationalist forces were supported by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, and Madrid eventually fell in March 1939.

Following Franco’s death and the end of his dictatorship in 1975, Madrid was confirmed as Spanish capital in the 1978 constitution. The 1978 constitution also established the Spanish government as a parliamentary monarchy, with the monarch as head of state and the prime minister as head of government.

Must-Visit Places in Madrid

 (Palacio realRoyal Palace

The Royal Palace of Madrid, Spain
The Royal Palace of Madrid, Spain

The first stop is the Royal Palace or Palacio real, which grew from a Moorish alcazar to the largest functioning royal palace in Europe. Sitting on 135,000 square metres with almost 3,500 rooms, the Palacio real is now only used for official functions. The royal family now resides in the more modest La Zarzuela Palace northwest of Madrid. The Royal Palace is open to the public and is worth a visit for its interior filled with paintings and beautiful décor.

El Retiro Park and City Centre Landmarks

A Crystal Palace in Retiro Park, Madrid
Crystal Palace in Retiro Park, Madrid, Spain
Plaza Mayor, Madrid
Plaza Mayor, Madrid, Spain

Close to the Royal Palace is the Parque del Buen Retiro, El retiro park, (“Park of the Pleasant Retreat”) which once belonged to the Spanish monarchy but is now a public park. Also in the city centre is the Plaza Mayor, a major public square in the heart of Madrid, and Mercado San Miguel, a covered marketplace established in 1916.

Puerta del Sol

La Puerta del Sol from Above
The Puerta del Sol square is the main public square in the city of Madrid, Spain. In the middle of the square is located the office of the President of the Community of Madrid.

The Puerta del Sol or “Sun Gate” is Madrid’s most popular square, located next to the Casa de Correos or the city’s original post office building that is now the seat of the Madrid community. Beneath its wall is the zero-kilometre stone, which is a basis for numbering Spain’s roads and measuring distances in the country. This is also where the people of Madrid gather on New Year’s Eve to hear the clock at the top of the Casa de Correos strike midnight.

Museo del Prado

View of the entrance of the Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain
View of the entrance of the Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. In the foreground is a statue of the famous Spanish painter, Diego Velazquez.

When the building commissioned by Charles III as a natural history museum was finally completed in 1819, Ferdinand VII began filling it with artwork from the royal collection, putting them in one location from scattered palaces. This building became the Museo del Prado, Madrid’s major art gallery, which holds artwork from artists such as Rembrandt, Rafael, and Hieronymous Bosch and Spanish painter Francisco Goya.

Other nearby Spanish art museums are the Reina Sofia, renowned for its collection of modern art; and the Thyssen-Bornemisza, a former private collection transcending all periods from the Middle Ages to the present.

What impresses the visitor most of all is the experience of the city’s intense night life, which goes on unabated till dawn: cafés, tapas bars, discothèques, live theatre, opera, ballet, zarzuela, flamenco music. Madrid cuisine with its hearty dishes is also an incredible showstopper.

Cibeles Fountain In Downtown Madrid, Spain
Madrid’s Cibeles Fountain on a sunny day.

Of course there are ther Madrid Highlights to consider on any sightseeing tour of the Spanish capital such as the gates built for Ferdinand VII are worthy of a a visit, the Puerta de Toledo. Then there is the ever popular Plaza de Cibeles, a square with a neo-classical complex of marble sculptures within the cibeles fountain that has become an iconic symbol for Madrid. Plaza de Cibeles sits at the intersection of Calle de Alcala, Paseo de Recoletos and Paseo del Prado.

Articles on Spain and Madrid published by Odyssey Traveller.

The following list of articles published by Odyssey Traveller for mature aged and senior travellers enjoying a small group tour as a couple of solo traveller that may also help to maximise your knowledge and enjoyment of Madrid when visiting:

External articles to assist you on your visit to Madrid.

Related Tours

Discover Spain

Join this small group travel, 21-day tour of Spain. For couples or solo traveler with minimal single supplement has daily itineraries with local guides that provide authentic experiences for those who seek small group journeys. Escorted tour begins in Madrid, finishes in Barcelona.

21 days
Departing May, Sep

Habsburg Spain vs Tudor England: small group tour exploring the history of 16th century England and Spain

This holiday with a leading tour operator allows the escorted tour for seniors to explore the life and times of the royal families responsible for making England and Spain so significant in the 16th century with local guides providing the travel experience for the detailed itineraries. We spend 10 days travelling from London to Madrid.

21 days
Departing Aug, May
Saint James Way Small Group Walking Tour
Pre-guaranteed

Saint James Way Small Group Walking Tour (The Camino)- Spain

Experience pleasant sections of the Way of Saint James, crossing some of Spain’s most beautiful landscapes. We follow the pilgrims on easy distances of The Way to the mythical destination, Santiago de Compostella. Not since the middle ages has this adventure for body and mind been more popular. We also get to discover the artistic highlights and rich history of Northern Spain and Portugal, as well as enjoying local wines and exquisite food.

19 days
Departing Sep, Jun
Short Spain tours
Guaranteed

Short Spain Tour for senior and mature travellers

Join our small group guided tour of Spain, exploring this fascinating country over 10 nights with like minded people. We start in Barcelona and make our way slowly towards Madrid. Enjoy the food and culture while learning about the history of each location from our expert local guides and Odyssey Program Leader.

11 days
Departing May, Sep, Mar
Vineyard with Davaillo castle as background, La Rioja (Spain)
Guaranteed

Small Group Guided Tours of Spain and Portugal

Our program explores the lands of Spain and Portugal, two countries bound by many centuries of history reflected in their modern cultures. Divided by history and language, contiguous neighbours Spain and Portugal were once host to gigantic empires that still bear their languages and lifestyles.

24 days
Departing May, Sep, Mar

Articles

La Sagrada Familia Gaudi, Barcelona

15 of the Best Places to Visit in Spain

8 mins read

15 of the Best Places to Visit in Spain Spain is one of Europe’s most popular holiday destinations, attracting 82.8 million international visitors in 2018. We have collected the 15 best places to visit in…

Zaragoza town centre

Zaragoza, Spain

5 mins readEuropeSpain

The city of Zaragoza, the fifth-biggest city in Spain, lies in the region of Aragon in northern Spain and is easy to reach from both Madrid and Barcelona. Home to beautiful Moorish architecture, Roman ruins,…

The Sagrada Familia, still under construction

The Sagrada Familia, Spain

3 mins readEuropeSpain

La Sagrada Familia The Sagrada Familia, still under construction A small group guided tour of La Sagrada Familia, perhaps one of the world’s most iconic buildings, including the Basilicai Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia…