Studying Gargoyles and Grotesques Gargoyles and grotesques were a hallmark of the Gothic period of architecture, which grew popular in Western Europe from the 12th to the late 15th centuries, and which was carried over …

Istanbul, Imperial City

Blue Mosque, Istanbul

Istanbul, Imperial City For more than a thousand years, Constantinople stood as the capital of the Byzantine Empire, surviving numerous attacks and internal rebellions, until the cannons of the Ottoman Empire breached its walls. Constantinople, …

Constructing Versailles

The golden entrance gates of the Palace of Versailles

Constructing Versailles, the making of a Palace The Château du Versailles is an iconic destination for all of those interested in French history. A stone’s throw away from Paris, Versailles was the official  residence of …

‘Queen of the Sea’: A History of Lisbon In 1554, the writer Damião de Góis claimed that out of all the European cities, only Lisbon and her rival Seville ‘could rightfully be called Ladies and …

Who were the Roman Emperors?

Colosseum

Who led Rome? There are plenty of lead characters that rose to Roman power throughout its empire.  While some of them are very well known, others are less so.  Some ascended to leadership via lineage …

Monet’s Gift to France

Monet's gift to France

Claude Monet’s Water Lilies are among the most beloved artworks of the 20th century. Displayed in Paris’s Orangerie in a set of rooms devoted entirely to the paintings, they are Monet’s gift to France at …

Textiles through History

A spinning jenny

Weaving textiles throughout history and the advancement of society Fabric and textiles industry has a long and coloured past.  While it is estimated that fabrics were used in the time of the Stone Age, nearly …

Designing Paris

Paris Seine River

Designing Paris The Paris that many of us know and love did not always look as it does now. When Napoleon III instructed Hausmann to tear down the urban centre to make way for the …

Victorian England Country Life

Victorian Britain Country life

Victorian England Country Life The industrial revolution changed dramatically Victorian England Country life. From the demographic shift in the population commencing the rural -urban drift, to education and the nouveau rich from the industrialisation who …

Secrets of Florence

Florence, Italy

Secrets of Florence Florence, capital of the Italian region of Tuscany, is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance and left behind a legacy that shaped the Italy we know today. This article reveals some of …

Paris Leaders & Landmarks

Paris

Paris Leaders & Landmarks   The inhabitants of a place surely influence how it is perceived. Parisian politicians have certainly left their marks on some of France’s most famous landmarks, creating some amazing stories for …

Secret Venice

Secret Venice

Secret Venice: The Council of Ten and Medieval Espionage The city-state of Venice emerged on a lagoon from the ruins of the Roman and Byzantine empires in the 9th century, and grew to become the greatest …

Discovering Georgia

Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia

Discovering Georgia Standing at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains, the lands of Georgia are filled with wondrous sites just waiting to be discovered. The deep religious devotion of nation’s inhabitants is manifested through the …

Uncovering Albania

Uncovering Albania

Uncovering Albania Albania sits on the Ionian and Adriatic Seas in southern Europe, bounded by Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Greece. This small and mountainous country in the Balkan peninsula had roots in ancient Illyria, and …

Clothes began in Georgia In September 2009, a team of researchers and experts from the United States, Israel, and the Republic of Georgia examined clay retrieved from the Dzudzuana Cave and discovered something that would, …